Global glossary


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tidy and carefully arranged:

neat handwriting
His clothes were always neat and clean.



in spite of a fact that you have just mentioned [= nonetheless]:

What you said was true. It was, nevertheless, a little unkind.

noun phrase

A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head word, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase. They may be the most frequently occurring phrase type.

Examples: The noun phrases are underlined.

The election year politics are annoying for many people.

Almost every sentence contains at least one noun phrase.

Current economic weakness may be a result of high energy prices.

You find more information here.



[uncountable and countable]

the process of watching something or someone carefully for a period of time

on grounds of

on the basis of


1 if something is outdated, it is no longer considered useful or effective, because something more modern exists [↪ old-fashioned]:
outdated teaching methods
a factory with outdated equipment
His writing style is now boring and outdated.
2 outdated information is not recent and may no longer be correct:
This estimate was made on the basis of outdated figures.



[transitive verb not in progressive]

1 written: to understand or think of something or someone in a particular way [↪ perception]
perceive something/somebody as something
Even as a young woman she had been perceived as a future chief executive.
perceive something/somebody to be something
Children who do badly in school tests often perceive themselves to be failures.
2 formal: to notice, see, or recognize something [↪ perceptive]:
That morning, he perceived a change in Franca's mood.
Cats are not able to perceive colour.
perceive that
He perceived that there was no other way out of the crisis.


per‧se‧cute [transitive]
1 to treat someone cruelly or unfairly over a period of time, especially because of their religious or political beliefs:
The Puritans left England to escape being persecuted.
2 to deliberately cause difficulties for someone by annoying them often [= harass]:
Like many celebrities, she complained of being persecuted by the press.
persecutornoun [countable]
persecutionnoun [uncountable and countable]
the persecution of writers who criticize the government


is a combination of two (or more) words or their sounds (morphemes) and their meanings into a single new word



[plural noun]

the buildings and land that a shop, restaurant, company etc uses:

Schools may earn extra money by renting out their premises.
business premises
do not enter these premises
off the premises
Keep off these premises
The manager escorted him off the premises.
on the premises
The wonderful desserts are made on the premises.

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