Global glossary


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1 knowledge or understanding of a particular subject or situation
environmental/political/social awareness
Health officials have tried toraise awareness (=improve people's knowledge)about AIDS.
2 the ability to notice something using your senses
awareness of
an artist's awareness of light and color


the information, skills, and understanding that you have gained through learning or experience

You need specialist knowledge to do this job.
knowledge of
His knowledge of ancient civilizations is unrivalled.
knowledge about
the need to increase knowledge about birth control
He did nothavemuch knowledgeof American history.


per‧se‧cute [transitive]
1 to treat someone cruelly or unfairly over a period of time, especially because of their religious or political beliefs:
The Puritans left England to escape being persecuted.
2 to deliberately cause difficulties for someone by annoying them often [= harass]:
Like many celebrities, she complained of being persecuted by the press.
persecutornoun [countable]
persecutionnoun [uncountable and countable]
the persecution of writers who criticize the government



[countable noun usually singular] a particular type of character which makes someone likely to behave or react in a certain way [= temperament]
genetic disposition
of a nervous/sociable/sensitive etc disposition (=having a nervous etc character)
The film is not suitable for people of a nervous disposition.
have a cheerful/sunny etc disposition (=have a happy character)


1 if something is outdated, it is no longer considered useful or effective, because something more modern exists [↪ old-fashioned]:
outdated teaching methods
a factory with outdated equipment
His writing style is now boring and outdated.
2 outdated information is not recent and may no longer be correct:
This estimate was made on the basis of outdated figures.


the gist

the main idea and meaning of what someone has said or written
the gist of
The gist of his argument is that full employment is impossible.
Don't worry about all the details as long as you get the gist (=understand the main meaning)of it.



[countable noun]a subject or problem that is often discussed or argued about, especially a social or political matter that affects the interests of a lot of people

the issue of something raise an issue (=say that an issue should be discussed) address an issue (=discuss or deal with an issue) resolve an issue



to start a company, organization, system, etc that is intended to exist or continue for a long time [= found]:
The city of Boerne was established by German settlers in the 1840s.
Our goal is to establish a new research centre in the North


[transitive verb]

to officially end a law, system etc, especially one that has existed for a long time:



to demand that someone does something because it is a duty or seems reasonable

expect something from somebody
The officer expects complete obedience from his troops.
expect somebody to do something
I can't expect her to be on time if I'm late myself.
expect a lot of somebody/expect too much of somebody (=think someone can do more than may be possible)
The school expects a lot of its students.

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