Global glossary

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A

abolish

[transitive verb]

to officially end a law, system etc, especially one that has existed for a long time:

abusing

to treat someone in a cruel and violent way, often sexually

sexually/physically abused
She was sexually abused as a child

answer

  • (verb) to say something to someone as a reply when they have asked you a question, made a suggestion etc:
    She thought for a moment before answering.
 
  • something you say when you reply to a question that someone has asked you [= response]
    give (somebody) an answer

appearance

way somebody/something looks

[uncountable and countable]
the way someone or something looks to other people

He was always criticising his wife's appearance.
appearance of
They've changed the appearance of the whole building.
We are often attracted to somebody first by theirphysical appearance.
Women, in general, tend to be more concerned than men about their personal appearance.
She had an outward appearance of calm, but deep down she was really worried.

apply

to make a formal request, usually written, for something such as a job, a place in a university, or permission to do something

apply for
She applied for a job with the local newspaper.

aware

adjective

if you are aware that a situation exists, you realize or know that it exists

The children are aware of the danger of taking drugs.

 

awareness

1 knowledge or understanding of a particular subject or situation
environmental/political/social awareness
Health officials have tried toraise awareness (=improve people's knowledge)about AIDS.
2 the ability to notice something using your senses
awareness of
an artist's awareness of light and color

B

background

The foreground is what looks like the closest thing to you. It's in front of everything else in the picture, and it has the most detail. The background is the opposite-- it's the farthest away and has the least amount of detail. Middle-ground is in-between.

broadband

a system of connecting computers to the Internet and moving information, such as messages or pictures, at a very high speed

bustling

a bustling place is very busy

C

challenge

something difficult

[uncountable and countable noun]

challenge of
The company is ready to meet the challenges of the next few years.

consideration

[uncountable noun] formal

careful thought and attention, especially before making an official or important decision:

proposals put forward for consideration

convincing

making you believe that something is true or right

Courtenay played the role in an utterly convincing way.

course

in the course of last year = during last year

cover

  • (verb)news
    to report the details of an event for a newspaper or a television or radio programme:
    I'd just returned from covering the Cambodian war.
  • to include or deal with a particular subject or group of things:
    'Exercise' is a word which covers a vast range of activities.

D

debris

the pieces of something that are left after it has been destroyed in an accident, explosion etc:

She was hit by flying debris from the blast.

deliberately

done in a way that is intended or planned [= on purpose, intentionally]:

He deliberately upset her.

design

design (verb) context: is designed as

Definition: to plan or develop something for a specific purpose (Longman DCE 2008)

Example: These exercises are designed to sthrengthen your muscles. (Longman DCE 2008)

This textbook has been designed to explain the basic terminology of the subject area.

device

a piece of electronic equipment, such as alaptop computer or amobile phone, that is small and easy to carry

disability

plural disabilities

[countable noun] a physical or mental condition that makes it difficult for someone to use a part of their body properly, or to learn normally with a disability
Public places are becoming more accessible to people with disabilities.
learning/physical/mental etc disability
children with severe learning disabilities

discrimination

1.  the practice of treating one person or group differently from another in an unfair way:

discrimination against
widespread discrimination against older people in the job market
discrimination in favour of
discrimination in favour of university graduates
racial/sex/religious etc discrimination (=treating someone unfairly because of their race, sex etc)
positive discrimination, reverse discrimination
 
2. the ability to recognize the difference between two or more things, especially the difference in their quality:

dismissal

[uncountable and countable noun]

when someone is removed from their job:

Wilson was claiming compensation for unfair dismissal.

dispositions

formal

[countable noun usually singular] a particular type of character which makes someone likely to behave or react in a certain way [= temperament]
genetic disposition
of a nervous/sociable/sensitive etc disposition (=having a nervous etc character)
The film is not suitable for people of a nervous disposition.
have a cheerful/sunny etc disposition (=have a happy character)

downtown

city center

E

Earthlings

a human - used in science fiction stories

emit

to send out gas, heat, light, sound

establish

[transitive]

to start a company, organization, system, etc that is intended to exist or continue for a long time [= found]:
 
The city of Boerne was established by German settlers in the 1840s.
Our goal is to establish a new research centre in the North

exclude

to not allow someone to take part in something or not allow them to enter a place, especially in a way that seems wrong or unfair [≠ include]:

a mainstream exhibition that excluded women artists

expect

demand

to demand that someone does something because it is a duty or seems reasonable

expect something from somebody
The officer expects complete obedience from his troops.
expect somebody to do something
I can't expect her to be on time if I'm late myself.
expect a lot of somebody/expect too much of somebody (=think someone can do more than may be possible)
The school expects a lot of its students.

F

facility

facilities

[plural noun]

rooms, equipment, or services that are provided for a particular purpose:

All rooms haveprivate facilities (=private bathroom and toilet).
The hotel has its own pool andleisure facilities.
toilet facilities
childcare facilities

finite

having an end or a limit [≠ infinite]:

the earth's finite resources

foreground

The foreground is what looks like the closest thing to you. It's in front of everything else in the picture, and it has the most detail. The background is the opposite-- it's the farthest away and has the least amount of detail. Middle-ground is in-between.

fridge

a large piece of electrical kitchen equipment, used for keeping food and drinks cool

G

gap

 [countable noun]

a space

a space between two objects or two parts of an object, especially because something is missing
gap in
The neighbors' dog got in through a gap in the hedge.
a gap in the traffic
gap between
the gap between the two rows of seats

gist

the gist

the main idea and meaning of what someone has said or written
the gist of
The gist of his argument is that full employment is impossible.
Don't worry about all the details as long as you get the gist (=understand the main meaning)of it.

gossip

[uncountable noun]

information that is passed from one person to another about other people's behaviour and private lives, often including unkind or untrue remarks

COLLOCATIONS
piece of gossip the latest gossip juicy/hot gossip (=interesting gossip) idle gossip (=gossip not based on facts) common gossip (=something that everyone knows and is talking about) office gossip village gossipBritish English exchange gossip (=talk about other people's private lives with someone)

grassroots

the grass roots

the ordinary people in an organization, rather than the leaders
 
grass roots [adjective:]
We are hoping for full participation at grass roots level.

H

harassment

[uncountable noun]

when someone behaves in an unpleasant or threatening way towards you:
African-Americans have been complaining about police harassment for years.
sexual harassment (=because of someone's sex )
We need effective strategies to combat sexual harassment in the workplace.

humiliate

to make someone feel ashamed or stupid, especially when other people are present [= embarrass]:

Her boss humiliated her in front of all her colleagues.

I

impact

[countable noun] the effect or influence that an event, situation etc has on someone or something

impact on/upon
We need to assess the impact on climate change.
 
verb: to impact

intertwined

if two situations, ideas etc are intertwined, they are closely related to each other

The problems of crime and unemployment are closely intertwined.

intimidation

in‧tim‧i‧date [transitive verb]

to frighten or threaten someone into making them do what you want intimidate somebody into doing something

intimidation [uncountable noun]

She had endured years of intimidation and violence.
the intimidation of voters

issue

subject/problem

[countable noun]a subject or problem that is often discussed or argued about, especially a social or political matter that affects the interests of a lot of people

COLLOCATIONS
the issue of something raise an issue (=say that an issue should be discussed) address an issue (=discuss or deal with an issue) resolve an issue

K

knowledge

the information, skills, and understanding that you have gained through learning or experience

You need specialist knowledge to do this job.
knowledge of
His knowledge of ancient civilizations is unrivalled.
knowledge about
the need to increase knowledge about birth control
He did nothavemuch knowledgeof American history.

L

lift

[transitive verb] to move something or someone upwards into the air:

Sophie lifted the phone before the second ring.
He lifted the lid on the pot of soup.

link

to connect

to link up with somebody

linked-in (social media)

listen

hear to

M

manure

waste matter from animals that is mixed with soil to improve the soil and help plants grow

middle-ground

The foreground is what looks like the closest thing to you. It's in front of everything else in the picture, and it has the most detail. The background is the opposite-- it's the farthest away and has the least amount of detail. Middle-ground is in-between.

mistreated

to treat a person or animal badly, especially in a cruel way [= ill-treat, maltreat]:

Security forces are accused of mistreating prisoners.

N

neatness

tidy and carefully arranged:

neat handwriting
His clothes were always neat and clean.

nevertheless

[conjunction]

in spite of a fact that you have just mentioned [= nonetheless]:

What you said was true. It was, nevertheless, a little unkind.

noun phrase

A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head word, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase. They may be the most frequently occurring phrase type.

Examples: The noun phrases are underlined.

The election year politics are annoying for many people.

Almost every sentence contains at least one noun phrase.

Current economic weakness may be a result of high energy prices.

You find more information here.

O

observation

[uncountable and countable]

the process of watching something or someone carefully for a period of time

on grounds of

on the basis of

outdated

1 if something is outdated, it is no longer considered useful or effective, because something more modern exists [↪ old-fashioned]:
outdated teaching methods
a factory with outdated equipment
His writing style is now boring and outdated.
2 outdated information is not recent and may no longer be correct:
This estimate was made on the basis of outdated figures.

P

perceive

[transitive verb not in progressive]

1 written: to understand or think of something or someone in a particular way [↪ perception]
perceive something/somebody as something
Even as a young woman she had been perceived as a future chief executive.
perceive something/somebody to be something
Children who do badly in school tests often perceive themselves to be failures.
 
2 formal: to notice, see, or recognize something [↪ perceptive]:
That morning, he perceived a change in Franca's mood.
Cats are not able to perceive colour.
perceive that
He perceived that there was no other way out of the crisis.

persecution

per‧se‧cute [transitive]
1 to treat someone cruelly or unfairly over a period of time, especially because of their religious or political beliefs:
The Puritans left England to escape being persecuted.
2 to deliberately cause difficulties for someone by annoying them often [= harass]:
Like many celebrities, she complained of being persecuted by the press.
persecutornoun [countable]
persecutionnoun [uncountable and countable]
the persecution of writers who criticize the government

portemanteau

is a combination of two (or more) words or their sounds (morphemes) and their meanings into a single new word

premises

 

[plural noun]

the buildings and land that a shop, restaurant, company etc uses:

Schools may earn extra money by renting out their premises.
 
business premises
do not enter these premises
off the premises
Keep off these premises
The manager escorted him off the premises.
on the premises
The wonderful desserts are made on the premises.

prevail

[only before noun]

1 existing or accepted in a particular place or at a particular time [= current]:
The prevailing mood of public opinion remained hostile.
the prevailing economic conditionsin Northern Ireland
 
2 dominant

prevent

[transitive verb]

to stop something from happening, or stop someone from doing something:
The rules are intended to prevent accidents.
prevent somebody/something (from) doing something
His back injury may prevent him from playing in tomorrow's game.
We were prevented from entering the site.

provide

[transitive verb]

1 to give something to someone or make it available to them, because they need it or want it [↪ provision]:
Tea and biscuits will be provided.
provide something for somebody
The hotelprovidesa shoe-cleaning servicefor guests.
provide somebody with something
The project is designed to provide young people with work.
2 to produce something useful as a result:
We are hoping the enquiry will provide an explanation for the accident.
provide somebody with something
The search provided the police with several vital clues.

punish

[transitive verb]

to make someone suffer because they have done something wrong or broken the law [↪ punishment, punitive]:

Smacking is not an acceptable way of punishing a child.

put down

put-down [countable usually singular noun]
something you say that is intended to make someone feel stupid or unimportant [= snub]:
She was tired of his put-downs.
 
[verb]
to put someone down

R

rather

 

fairly, to some degree

Abigail's always been rather a difficult child.

rather than: instead of

Rather than go straight on to university why not get some work experience first?

receiving station

the satellite sends signals to the receiving station on the ground

There the raw data are being processed for further use.

relate

if two things relate, they are connected in some way [= connect]:

I don't understand how the two ideas relate.

remain

to continue to be in the same state or condition:

Please remain seated until all the lights are on.

remote

far away

far from towns or other places where people live [= isolated]:

a remote border town

remote sensing

the use of satellites to obtain pictures and information about the Earth

restricted

1 small or limited in size, area, or amount:
It's difficult trying to work in such a restricted space.

 

2 limited or controlled, especially by laws or rules:
Access to these premises is restricted.
Press freedom is severely restricted.

rooted

(adjective)
 
deep-rooted also deeply rooted
 
a deep-rooted habit, idea, belief etc is so strong in a person or society that it is very difficult to change or destroy it [↪ deep-seated]:
a deep-rooted suspicion of lawyers

S

scattered

spread over a wide area or over a long period of time

seaboard

the part of a country that is near the sea

the eastern seaboard of the US

seemingly

appearing to have a particular quality, when this may or may not be true [= apparently]:

The new minister was faced with a seemingly impossible task.

sensor

a piece of equipment used for discovering the presence of light, heat, movement etc

capteur (fr.)

skill

[uncountable and countable noun]

an ability to do something well, especially because you have learned and practised it [↪ talent]:
Reading and writing are two different skills.
Many jobs today require computer skills.
skill in/at
He was valued for his skill in raising money for the company.
develop/acquire/learn a skill
opportunities to acquire new skills
with skill
The whole team played with great skill and determination.
technical/management/practical etc skill
the kinds of communication skills required of teachers
Students need to possess certainbasic skillsby the time they finish school.

splendid

beautiful and impressive [= magnificent]

squiggle

[countable noun]

a line with irregular curves:

stretch

to spread out or cover a large area of land

stuck

the past tense and past participle of stick

something sticks, it becomes fixed in one position and is difficult to move:

This door keeps sticking.
 
If you get stuck, you don't know how to continue

sustainable

  • able to continue without causing damage to the environment:
The government should do more to promote sustainable agriculture.
 
  • able to continue for a long time
  • good for the environment:environmentally friendly

T

tackle

[transitive verb]

to try to deal with a difficult problem:

There is more than one way to tackle the problem.
It took twelve fire engines totackletheblaze.

target

an object, person, or place that is deliberately chosen to be attacked

in satellite imagery:

the zone the satellite is observing

task

is another word for exercise

tiny

comparative tinier, superlative tiniest

extremely small:

The earrings were tiny.
a tiny little baby

tool

[countable]

1 something that you hold in your hand and use to do a particular job:
I don't have the right tools to start fiddling around with the engine.
a shop selling garden tools
2  piece of equipment or a skill that is useful for doing your job:
Television is an important tool for the modern teacher.
These books arethe tools ofmytrade (=the things I need to do my job).

U

unbiased

unbiased information, opinions, advice etc is fair because the person giving it is not influenced by their own or other people's opinions [= impartial]:

We aim to provide a service that is balanced and unbiased.
an unbiased observer

unjustified

done without an acceptable reason:

unjustified price increases

unsolicited

not asked for and often not wanted:

W

wardrobe

a piece of furniture like a large cupboard that you hang clothes in

whether

synonym of 'if'

withhold

past tense and past participle withheld [transitive]

to refuse to give someone something:

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